BURUSHASKI LANGUAGE PDF

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BURUSHASKI (Burúśaski), language spoken by the Burúśo (sing. Burúśin) in Hunza-Karakorum, North Pakistan, containing some Iranian loanwords of various . Known to its speakers as mišāski or ‘my language’, Burushaski is mainly spoken in the Hunza, Nagar, and Yasin valleys situated in the Gilgit- Baltistan (formerly. The picturesque valleys of northern Pakistan are the cradles of many strange languages and cultures. The languages spoken here — virtually.

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Caucasian languages are the ones with which Burushaski has any similarity, if at all, wrote Berger. Yet another theory suggests that Burusho people are an offshoot of ‘Hoon’ tribe that lived in the northern and western parts of China.

Burushaski has some similarity with French language as far as counting and digits are concerned. Burushaski is a strange language Rauf Parekh July 19, Other languages designated as language isolates are Basque, the language of the Yenesian Kets, the Niwch and the Yukaghir language.

Many sound changes can take place, including assimilationdeletion and accent burushasmiwhich are unique for almost every verb. Quantum mechanics, science dealing with the behaviour llanguage matter and light on the atomic and subatomic…. The word was first used in the middle of the 19th century to emphasize the difference between a newer approach to the study of language that was then developing and the more traditional approach of philology.

Nouns in the x-class typically refer to countable, non-human beings or things, for example animals, fruit, stones, eggs, or coins; conversely, nouns languzge the y-class are as a rule uncountable abstractions or mass nouns, such as rice, fire, water, snow, wool, etc. With intransitive verbs, the subject bjrushaski is indicated by both a prefix lajguage a suffix, as in:. Conditionalthree OptativesImperativeConative. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Burushaski is perhaps the strangest of them all. Burushaki language, Burushki language. The personal affixes are also used when the noun occupies the role of the subject or the object, e. With primary transitive verbs the d-prefix, always without personal prefixes, forms regular intransitives.

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About the Language

Nouns burushaki parts of the body and kinship terms are accompanied by an obligatory pronominal prefix. For example, the construction of the preterite of the transitive verb phus ‘to tie’, with prefixes and suffixes separated by hyphens, is as follows:.

Bailey in Orientalia J. Bangladesh’s Sheikh Hasina set for landslide win as opposition demands new vote.

Burushaski Language Documentation Project

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. In languages that exhibit gender, two or more classes of nouns control variation…. He did extensive research on the Yasin accent and Gilgit-Hunza accent of the language. None of these studies provide conclusive evidence for a genetic relationship between Burushaski and an existing language so far.

Burushaski proper Hunza-Nagar Wershikwar Yasin. Fruit trees are understood collectively and placed in the y-class, but their individual fruits belong to the x-class. The picturesque valleys of northern Pakistan are the cradles of many strange languagw and cultures. It’s spoken by about 90, people, the Burusho people, and nearly all of them live in Pakistan.

Thus, imperfect knowledge of the language is very common and fluency in Burushaski among the second and third generation is on a rapid decline. The author argues that the middle marker is a semantic category of its own and that it is clearly distinguished from the reflexive marker in this language.

Keep Exploring Britannica Atom. The first volume was published a few years ago and now the second volume has appeared. XXIV, and see H.

Please try again later. It is estimated to have some 90, speakers. Forms of the auxiliary verb ba- buruehaski forming the present, imperfect, perfect and pluperfect. Some nouns admit two or three different prefixes, while others have no distinctive suffix, and occur only in the plural, e. Inauguration ceremony of Mohmand dam postponed. Burushaski language Written By: The people speaking Burushaski as mother tongue are known as Burusho and live in Karachi too in a large number. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.

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Linguisticsthe scientific study of language. Dialectal differences are observed mostly in lexicon and phonology but also in morphology and syntax. Having a predominately Indo-Iranian speaking population, Pakistan has historically and culturally buruzhaski associated with its neighbours Iran, Afghanistan, and India.

It has, for example, three different words to say ‘the sound of opening a door’, each one describing the intensity of the process, telling burshaski it produced a very slight sound, a slight sound or a loud one. As a result, they shift to using Urdu as their primary language. As a buruwhaski, many younger generation Burushos only have a receptive proficiency in Burushaski.

Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Among these, Urdu has a special status in that it is the lingua franca of the region and the langage of literacy.

The linguist Sadaf Munshi stated that Burushaski may have developed alongside the Dravidian languages before the Indo-Aryan migration to Languafe Asia, mentioning the fact that both possess retroflex sounds. Burushaski is a linguistic isolate, a language whose genetic relationship to other languages is not yet clear. German and Canadian universities had published extensive research works on the language and Karachi University has now taken the lead in Pakistan by publishing vital information on the language in Urdu.

Evidence for the Indo-European laryngeals in Burushaski and its genetic affiliation with Indo-European. Borrowing from other Iranian languages took place sporadically see Morgenstierne apud Lorimer, p. The following table gives an overview of the lantuage and their functions.