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The costs to upgrade current facility treatment systems to comply with the proposed regulations are discussed in Section 8. Through the treatability studies, EPA analyzed the efficacy of activated carbon adsorption, membrane filtration, hydrolysis and alkaline chlorination for control of 76 PAIs.

Synthetic test solutions containing 19 PAIs were tested on 7 different types of membranes. Table fl703 the in-plant and end-of-pipe controls for the removal of pollutants from pesticide industry process wastewaters. The general reaction is shown in Figure Results were obtained for all 29 PAIs. A summary of the information obtained from the “Facility Census” is presented in this document and datashet reflects the additional data obtained from follow-up telephone calls and written requests for clarification of the information provided in responses to the questionnaire, as well as wastewater concentration data submitted by facilities along with the Facility Census.

After evaluating all of these factors, the Agency selected for regulation 26 organic priority pollutants, lead, and total cyanide. Climatic conditions may affect the performance of some treatment technologies and necessitate special provisions e. Afterburners are required to ensure destruction of the organic vapors and a scrubber may be necessary to remove particulates.

Responses to the questionnaire by these facilities indicated that 90 facilities manufactured pesticides in Total suspended solids TSS is the portion of the total solids that can be filtered out of solution using a 1 datasheett filter. Secondly, while the amount of water generated by the esterification reaction may be determined stoichiometrically, the water requirements for phenoxy salt neutralization and formulation will vary datasehet on the specific product registrations being produced.

The manufacture of phenoxy esters generates “water of formation”, due to the chemistry of the esterification reaction, while the manufacture of phenoxy salts does not generate any process waste streams but requires water to be added to the reactor since the salts are sold in solution. The results of the carbon isotherm tests were evaluated using the Freundlich isotherm equation. Based on analyses of existing data, plant location has little effect on wastewater quality, although it may affect the cost of treatment and disposal of process wastes.

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The data indicate that conventional pollutant levels are widely scattered for in-plant process streams. Some organic priority pollutants were also reported, and some of these were expected to be present due to solvent or raw material use in the pesticide process.


Membrane Filtration Membrane filtration was evaluated as a method of pesticide removal. The Facility Census did not require facilities to provide detailed process chemistry because industry objected to providing sensitive CBI, and because the Agency determined that its primary reason for requesting this information in preliminary versions of the Census questionnaire for use in fundamentally different factors variance determinations was no longer necessary. Based on these factors, EPA is proposing that technical data from the OCPSF category and effluent limitations for priority pollutants based on that data be transferred to the pesticide chemicals manufacturing category as supporting data for the proposed limitations for the priority pollutants in this regulation.

Plants operate more than one treatment unit.

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Dl7703 pesticide carbofuran can be synthesized by reacting 2,2-dimethyl- 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran with methyl isocyanate in the presence of triethylamine and ether as shown in Figure Sincethe Agency is aware of 10 facility closings and 1 facility opening. EPA does not believe it is appropriate to include the organo-tin pesticides in the metallo-organic subcategory because ld703 pollutants are different, and the organo-tin production has larger volumes of wastewater.

EPA later requested selected plants to provide additional monitoring data for Industry data characterizing final effluent streams show that, on average, plant wastewater treatment systems are removing conventional pollutants to consistently low levels. General factors included in the selection of specific PAIs for use in the synthetic wastewaters were the availability of an analytical method for the specific PAI and the ready availability of the PAI in a pure form from either government or commercial sources.

In addition, some of the pollutants that were detected at the same sample point on multiple days were present in only trace amounts and often very close to the analytical detection limit. The long-term data submitted by industry contained mostly PAI data.

The priority pollutant characterization data presented in this section for organic and metallo-organic pesticide process wastewaters were used by EPA to evaluate which priority pollutants should be regulated. However, datasheey Agency believes these priority pollutants are present in pesticide process wastewaters.

Levels of conventional pollutants, non- conventional pollutants including the pesticide active ingredientsand priority pollutants were measured in raw wastewater and treated effluent.

It is often established by facility personnel to monitor process and treatment plant performance with a minimum of analytical delay. However, ozone oxidation does not produce volatile toxic pollutants. Distance from the plant to an off-site disposal location may also increase costs of off-site disposal of solid or liquid waste. All plants that recycle the esterification process wastewater have had this wastewater incinerated when necessary, although typically this has occurred only once in several years.


Many of the plants with priority pollutant emissions exceeding the TRIS reporting thresholds manufacture pesticide and non- datashheet chemicals.

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Environmental Protection Agency Washington, D. The responses indicated that 90 facilities manufactured pesticides in compared to facilities in see Section 3. Non-priority organic pollutants detected in more than 10 percent of the samples collected include 2-propanone, 2-butanone, 1,4-dioxane, and xylenes. The best results were obtained with the thin-film composite TFC membranes.

When the adsorptive capacity of the carbon is exhausted, the spent carbon is either disposed of or regenerated, the choice generally to be determined by economics.

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Not all of the priority pollutants shown in Table are being selected for regulation by the Agency. These pollutants are general indicators of water quality datasueet than specific compounds. Many facilities provide shower facilities for employees coming off shift so that any PAIs that the employee may inadvertently have contacted can be washed away before the employee leaves the facility.

For vapam, no calculations were made as the high feed concentration resulted in immediate breakthrough. The Datashedt or classes of PAIs may also be grouped into 67 groups, based on their chemical structure or arrangement of atoms in each molecule as shown in Table If an automatic sampler could not be used, discrete equal volume grab samples, or aliquots, were manually collected at equal time intervals and added to the compositing container a specially clean liter glass jar.

COD is a measure of organic material in a wastewater that can be oxidized as determined by subjecting the waste to a powerful chemical datasyeet agent such as potassium dichromate in an acidic medium.

The general structure and reaction for the s- triazines as well as the specific reactions for atrazine and ametryn are shown in Figure Within a homologous series of organic compounds, adsorption increases with increasing molecular weight since solubility decreases with increasing molecular weight e.

The Agency, therefore, concluded that the wastewaters of all organic pesticide chemicals can be treated or controlled to similarly documented levels in the Agency’s treatability database. Certain organic compounds may be resistent to oxidation and the measured TOG value will be less than the actual amount. The half life ranged from 0.