Heidegger delivered his Inaugural Lecture as Rector. 23 April Heidegger resigned from the Rectorate. The Rektoratsrede. With those dates. Martin Heidegger. (). The assumption of the rectorate is the commitment to the spiritual leadership of this institution of higher learning.* The following of. Download Citation on ResearchGate | Defense of irony: Heidegger and the ” rektoratsrede” | The author deals with Heidegger’s relation to National Socialism on.

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His first and best known book, Being and Timethough unfinished, is one of the central philosophical works of the 20th century. Heidegger approached the question through an inquiry into the being that has an understanding of Being, and asks the question about it, namely, Human being, which he called Dasein “being-there”.

For Heidegger thinking is thinking about things originally discovered in our everyday practical engagements. The consequence of this is that our capacity to think cannot be the most central quality of our being because thinking is a reflecting upon this more original way of discovering the world. In the second part of his book, Heidegger argues that human being is even more fundamentally structured by its Temporalityor its concern with, and relationship to timeexisting as a structurally open “possibility-for-being”.

He rektoratsredee the importance of Authenticity in human existence, involving a truthful relationship to our thrownness into a world which we are “always already” concerned with, and heideggre our being-towards-deaththe Finitude of the time and being we are given, rektoratsreee the closing down of our various possibilities for being through time. Heidegger also made critical contributions to heideggfr conceptions of trutharguing that its original meaning was unconcealmentto philosophical analyses of art as a reitoratsrede of the revelation of truth, and to philosophical understanding of language as the “house rektoartsrede being.

His family could not afford to send him to university, so he entered rektoratsgede Jesuit seminarythough he was turned away within weeks because of the health requirement and what the director and doctor of the seminary described as a psychosomatic heart condition.

Heidegger was short and sinewy, with dark piercing eyes. He enjoyed outdoor pursuits, being especially proficient at skiing. Studying theology at the University of Freiburg while supported by the church, later he switched his field of study to philosophy. Heidegger completed his doctoral thesis on psychologism in[23] influenced by Neo-Thomism and Neo-Kantianismdirected by Arthur Heideggef.

In the two years following, he worked first as an unsalaried Privatdozent then served as a soldier rektoratsred the final year of World War I ; serving “the last ten months of the war” with “the last three of those in a rketoratsrede unit on the western front “.

InHeidegger was elected to an extraordinary Professorship in Philosophy at the University of Marburg. Following on from Aristotlehe began to develop in his lectures the main theme of his philosophy: He extended the concept of subject to the dimension of history and concrete existencewhich he found prefigured in such Christian thinkers as Rektoartsrede PaulAugustine of HippoLutherand Kierkegaard. When Husserl retired as Professor of Philosophy inHeidegger accepted Freiburg’s election to be his successor, in spite of a counter-offer by Marburg.

Heidegger remained at Freiburg im Breisgau for the rest of his life, declining a number of later offers, including one from Humboldt University of Berlin.

He resigned the rectorate in Aprilbut remained a member of the Nazi Party until even though as Julian Young asserts the Nazis eventually prevented him from publishing. According to historian Richard J. EvansHeidegger was not only a member of the Nazi Party, but “enthusiastic” about participating.

He wanted to position himself as the philosopher of the Party, but the highly abstract nature of his work and the opposition of Alfred Rosenbergwho himself aspired to act in that position, limited Heidegger’s role. His resignation from the rectorate owed more to his frustration as an administrator than to any principled opposition to rektorasrede Nazis, according to historians.

Heidegger’s Black Notebookswritten between and and first published incontain several expressions of anti-semitic sentiments, which have led to a re-evaluation of Heidegger’s relation to Nazism. No punitive measures against him were proposed. Heidegger knew that he was not Hermann’s biological father but raised him as his son. Hermann’s biological father, who became godfather to his son, was family friend and doctor Friedel Caesar.

Hermann was told of this at the age of Heidegger had a long romantic relationship with Hannah Arendt and a steamy affair over many decades with Elisabeth Blochmannboth students of his. Arendt was Jewishand Blochmann had one Jewish parent, making them subject to severe persecution by the Nazi authorities.

He helped Blochmann emigrate from Germany before the start of Rektorahsrede War II and resumed contact with rektoratsdede of them after the war. Heidegger spent much time at his vacation home at Todtnaubergon the edge of the Black Forest.

He considered the seclusion provided heisegger the forest to be the best environment in which to engage in philosophical thought. A few months before his death, he met with Bernhard Welte, a Catholic priest, Freiburg university professor and earlier correspondent.

The exact nature of the conversation is not known, but what is known is that it included talk rektoratwrede Heidegger’s relationship to the Catholic Church and subsequent Christian burial at rektodatsrede the priest officiated.


Heidegger’s philosophy is founded on the attempt to conjoin what he considers two fundamental insights: Heidegger thought the presence of things for us is not their being, but merely them interpreted as equipment according to a particular system of meaning and purpose. For instance, when a hammer is efficiently used to knock in nails, we cease to be aware of it. This is termed “ready to hand”, and Heidegger considers it an authentic mode, saying that the given “past” has presence in an oversimplified way when reduced to possible future usefulness to us.

Heidegger claimed philosophy and science since ancient Greece had reduced things to their presence, which was a superficial way of understanding them. One crucial source of this insight was Heidegger’s reading of Franz Brentano ‘s treatise on Aristotle’s manifold uses of the word “being”, a work which provoked Heidegger to ask what kind of unity underlies this multiplicity of uses. Heidegger opens his magnum opus, Being and Timewith a citation from Plato ‘s Sophist [48] indicating that Western philosophy has neglected Being because it was considered too obvious to question.

Heidegger’s intuition about the question of Being is thus a historical argument, which in his later work becomes his concern with the “history of Being”, that is, the history of the forgetting of Being, which according to Heidegger requires that philosophy retrace its footsteps through a productive destruction of the history of philosophy.

The second intuition animating Heidegger’s philosophy derives from the influence of Edmund Husserla philosopher largely uninterested in questions of philosophical history.

Rather, Husserl argued that all that philosophy could and should be is a description of experience hence the phenomenological slogan, “to the things themselves”. But for Heidegger, this meant understanding that experience is always already situated in a world and in ways of being.

Thus Husserl’s understanding that all consciousness is ” intentional ” in the sense that it is always intended toward something, and is always “about” something is transformed in Heidegger’s philosophy, becoming the thought that all experience is grounded in “care”. This is the basis of Heidegger’s “existential analytic”, as he develops it in Being and Time.

Heidegger argues that describing experience properly entails finding the being for whom such a description might matter.

Heidegger thus conducts his description of experience with reference to ” Dasein “, the being for whom Being is a question. In everyday German, ” Dasein ” means “existence. Dasein is transformed in Heidegger’s usage from its everyday meaning to refer, rather, to that being that is there in its world, that is, the being for whom being matters.

In Being and TimeHeidegger criticized the abstract and metaphysical character of traditional ways of grasping human existence as rational animal, person, man, soul, spirit, or subject. Daseinthen, rektoratsrrde not intended as a way of conducting a philosophical anthropologybut is rather understood by Heidegger to be the condition of possibility for anything like a philosophical anthropology.

The need for Dasein to assume these possibilities, that is, the need to be responsible for one’s own existence, is the basis of Heidegger’s notions of authenticity and resoluteness—that is, of those specific possibilities for Dasein which depend on escaping heidevger “vulgar” temporality of calculation and of public life.

The marriage of these two observations rektorarsrede on the fact that each of them is essentially concerned with time.

On Heidegger’s Nazism and Philosophy

That Dasein is thrown into rektooratsrede already existing world and thus into its mortal possibilities does not only mean that Dasein is an essentially temporal being; it also implies that the description of Dasein can only be carried out in terms inherited from the Western tradition itself. For Heidegger, unlike for Husserl, hiedegger terminology could not be divorced from the history of the use of that terminology, and thus genuine philosophy could not avoid confronting questions of language and meaning.

The existential analytic of Being and Time was thus always only a first step in Heidegger’s philosophy, to be followed by the “dismantling” Destruktion of the history of philosophy, that is, a transformation of its language and meaning, that would have made of the existential analytic only a kind of “limit case” in the sense in which special relativity is a limit case of general relativity. That Heidegger did not write this second part of Being and Timeand that the existential analytic was left behind in the course hejdegger Heidegger’s subsequent writings on the history of being, might be interpreted as a failure to conjugate his account of individual experience with his account of the vicissitudes of the collective human adventure that he understands the Western philosophical tradition to be.

And this would in turn raise the question of whether this failure is due to a flaw in Heidegger’s account of temporality, that is, of whether Heidegger was correct to oppose vulgar and authentic time. Being and Time German title: Sein und Zeitpublished inwas Heidegger’s first academic book.

He had been under pressure to publish in order to qualify for Husserl’s to whom he dedicated the work chair at the University of Freiburg and the success of this work ensured his appointment to the post. In Being and TimeHeidegger investigates the question of Being by asking about the being for whom Being is a question. Heidegger heideggsr this being Dasein see aboveand he pursues his investigation through themes such as mortality, careanxiety, temporality, and historicity. It was Heidegger’s original intention to write a second heidgger of the book, consisting of a ” Destruktion ” of the history of philosophy—that is, the transformation of philosophy by re-tracing its history—but he never completed this project.

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Being and Time influenced many thinkers, including such existentialist thinkers as Jean-Paul Sartre although Heidegger distanced himself from existentialism —see below. Heidegger’s later works, beginning by and largely established by the early s, [4] seem to many commentators e. Richardson [55] to at least reflect a shift of focus, if not indeed a major change in his philosophical outlook, which is known as “the turn” die Kehre. For example, in Mark Wrathall [60] argued that Heidegger pursued and refined the central notion of unconcealment throughout his life as a philosopher.

Its importance and continuity in his thinking, Wrathall states, shows that he did not have a “turn”. A reviewer of Wrathall’s book stated: Heidegger focuses less on the way in which the structures of being are revealed in everyday behavior, and more on the way in which behavior itself depends on a prior “openness to being. Heidegger understands the commencement of the history of Western philosophy as a brief period of authentic openness to being, during the time of the pre-Socraticsespecially AnaximanderHeraclitusand Parmenides.

This was followed, according to Heidegger, by a long period increasingly dominated by the forgetting of this initial openness, a period which commences with Platoand which occurs in different ways heideggger Western history.

Martin Heidegger

Two recurring themes of Rektoratxrede later writings are poetry and technology. Heidegger sees poetry and technology as two contrasting ways of ” revealing. Technology, on the other hand, when it gets going, inaugurates the world of the dichotomous subject and object, which modern philosophy commencing with Descartes also reveals.

But with modern technology a new stage of revealing is reached, in which the subject-object distinction is overcome even in the “material” world of technology. The essence of modern technology is the conversion of the whole universe heideyger beings into an undifferentiated “standing reserve” Bestand of energy available for any use to which humans choose to put it. In a lecture he formulated the famous saying ” Language speaks “, later published in the essays collection Unterwegs zur Spracheand collected in the English book Poetry, Language, Thought.

What Is Called Thinking? Heidegger believed the Western world to be on a trajectory headed for total war, [67] and on the brink of profound nihilism [68] the rejection of all religious and moral principles[69] which would be the purest and highest revelation of Being itself, [70] offering a horrifying crossroads of either salvation or the end of metaphysics and modernity ; [71] rendering the West a wasteland populated by tool-using brutes, characterized by an unprecedented ignorance and barbarism [72] in which everything is permitted.

He thought the latter possibility would degenerate mankind generally into scientists, workers and brutes; heidegver living under the last mantle of one of three ideologies, AmericanismMarxism or Nazism [75] which he deemed metaphysically identical, as avatars of subjectivity and institutionalized nihilism[76] and an unfettered totalitarian world technology.

He envisaged this abyss to be the greatest event in the West’s history because it would enable Humanity to comprehend Being more profoundly and primordially than the Pre-Socratics. Recent scholarship has shown that Heidegger was substantially influenced by St.

Augustine of Hippo and that Being and Time would not have been possible without the influence of Augustine’s thought. Augustine’s Confessions was particularly influential in shaping Heidegger’s thought. Augustine viewed time as relative and subjective, and that being and time were bound up together. Heidegger was influenced at an early age rektortsrede Aristotle, mediated through Catholic theologymedieval philosophy and Franz Brentano. Aristotle’s ethical, logical, and metaphysical works were crucial to the development of his thought in the crucial period of the s.

Although he later worked less on Aristotle, Heidegger recommended postponing reading Nietzsche, and to “first study Aristotle for ten to fifteen years”.

Martin Heidegger and Nazism

Particularly important not least for its influence upon others, both in their interpretation of Aristotle and in rehabilitating a neo-Aristotelian “practical philosophy” [83] was his radical reinterpretation of Book Six of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics and several books of the Metaphysics. Both informed the argument of Being and Time. Heidegger’s thought is original in being an authentic retrieval of the past, a repetition of the possibilities handed down by the tradition.

The idea of asking about being may be traced back via Aristotle to Parmenides. Heidegger claimed to have revived the question of being, the question having been largely forgotten by the metaphysical tradition extending from Plato to Descartes rektoratsredee, a forgetfulness extending rektoratrsede the Age of Enlightenment and then to modern science and technology.

In pursuit of the retrieval of this question, Heidegger spent considerable time reflecting on ancient Greek thoughtin particular on Plato, ParmenidesHeraclitusand Anaximander, as well as on the tragic playwright Sophocles.