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Conquest of the Persian Empire. Conquest of Roman Syria. Campaigns in Ib and Anatolia. He is noted for his military tactics and prowess, commanding the forces of Medina under Muhammad and the forces of his immediate successors of the Rashidun CaliphateAbu Bakr and Umar ibn Khattab. Commanding the forces of the nascent Islamic state, Khalid was victorious lf over a hundred battles, against the forces of the Byzantine-Roman EmpireSassanid-Persian Empireand their allies, in addition to hlstory Arab tribes.
His strategic achievements include the conquest of Arabia during the Ridda WarsPersian Mesopotamia and Roman Syria within several years from to He is also remembered for his decisive victories at YamamahUllaisand Firazand his tactical successes at Walaja and Yarmouk. Khalid ibn al-Walid Khalid son of al-Walid was from the Meccan tribe of Qurayshfrom a clan that initially opposed Muhammad. He played a vital role in the Meccan victory at the Battle of Uhud against the Muslims.
He converted to Islamand joined Muhammad after the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah bih participated in various expeditions for him, such as the Battle of Mu’tahwhich was the first battle between the Romans and the Muslims. Khalid ibn Al-Walid reported that the fighting was so intense, that while fighting, he broke nine swords in the battle.
After Muhammad’s death, he played a key role in commanding Medinan forces for Abu Bakr in the Ridda warsconquering central Arabia and subduing Arab tribes. He was later transferred to the western front to capture Roman Syria and the Byzantine Arab client state of the Ghassanids. Although Umar later relieved him of high command, he urdj remained the effective leader of the forces arrayed wwleed the Byzantines during the early stages of the Byzantine—Arab Wars.
Inhe was dismissed from military services. Khalid fought around battles, both major battles and minor skirmishes as well as single duels, during his military career.
Having remained undefeatedhe is claimed by some to be one of the finest military generals in history. Khalid was born c.
Walid was known in Mecca by the title of al-Waheed – “the Loner”. Soon after his birth, in accordance with the traditions of the Quraysh, Khalid was sent to a Bedouin tribe in the desert, where a foster mother nursed him and brought him up in the clear, dry and unpolluted air of the desert.
At the age of five or six, he returned to his parents in Mecca. During his childhood Khalid suffered a mild attack of smallpox, which he survived, but it left some pockmarks on his left cheek. The three leading clans of Quraysh at that time were Banu HashimBanu Abd ad-Dar and Banu Makhzum, the latter clan being responsible for the matters of warfare. As a member of the Makhzum clan, who were amongst the best horsemen in ArabiaKhalid learned to ride and use such weapons as the spearthe lancethe bow and the sword.
The lance was said to be his favorite among the weapons. In youth he was admired as a renowned warrior and wrestler among the Quraysh. Not much wa,eed known about Walleed during the early days of the preaching of Muhammad. His father was uistory for his hostility against Muhammad. Following the migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medinamany battles were fought between the new Muslim community at Medina and the confederacy of the Quraysh.
Khalid and his elder brother Hasham ibn Walid went to Medina to ransom Walid, but soon after he was ransomed, Walid, amidst the journey back to Mecca, escaped and went back to Muhammad and converted to Islam.
A peace agreement of ten years was concluded between the Muslims and Quraysh of Mecca at the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah in It has been recorded that Muhammad told Khalid’s brother, Walid bin Walid, that: Khalid, who was not unduly drawn towards the idols of the Kaabadecided to convert to Islam and is said to have shared this matter with his childhood friend Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl who opposed him. Khalid was threatened by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb with dire consequences, but was restrained by Ikrimah who is reported to have said: Your anger may well lead me also to join Muhammad.
Khalid is free to follow whatever religion he chooses”. They arrived at Medina on 31 May and went to the house of Muhammad. Khalid was received by his elder brother Walid bin al-Walid and was first among the three men to enter Islam. Khalid respectfully greeted Muhammad and took the pledge of allegiance on him.
Then Muhammad very affectionally told to Khalid:. I was sure, taking into consideration your brilliance, your wisdom and foresight that surely one day you would accept Islam as your religion. After that, Khalid requested on Muhammad to pray on Allah to forgive his previous sins.
Then Muhammad prayed ohalid Allah to forgive and have mercy on him. E, an expedition was prepared to take punitive action against the Ghassanidsa vassal state of Eastern Roman walees. Muhammad appointed Zayd ibn Harithah as the commander of the force. In waleef event that all three were killed, the men of the expedition were to select a commander from amongst themselves. In September C. All three named commanders were slain during the Battle, and Khalid was selected as the commander.
He was able to maintain his heavily outnumbered army of 3, men against an army of 10, of the Byzantine Empire and Ghassanid Arabs. Khalid assumed command of the Muslim army at the crucial moment, and turned what would have been a bloody slaughter into historyy strategic retreat and saved the Muslim army from total annihilation. During khqlid, Khalid sent some columns behind the main army, and the next morning prior to the battle they were instructed to join the Muslim army in small bands, one after the wzleed, giving historh impression of a fresh reinforcement, thus lowering the opponent’s morale.
Khalid somehow stabilized the battle lines for that day, and during the night his men retreated back to Arabia. Believing a trap was waiting for them, the Byzantine troops did not pursue. After the Hkstory of Mu’tah, Khalid was given awleed title Sword of God for bringing back his army to fight another day. A year later, inthe Muslims advanced from Medina to conquer Mecca.
In the Conquest of Mecca Khalid commanded one of the four Muslims armies that entered Mecca from four different routes, and routed the Qurayshi cavalry. Later that year, he participated in the Battle of Hunayn and the Siege of Ta’if. It is said that on his Battle in Hunayn, he suffered grievous and deep wounds.
But after gaining victory, Muhammad visited him and treated his wounds which histort quickly. He was part of the expedition to Tabuk under the command of Muhammad, and from there he was sent to Daumat-ul-Jandal where he fought and captured the Arab Prince of Daumat-ul-Jandalforcing Daumat-ul-Jandal to submit.
In he participated in the farewell hajj of Muhammad. During which he is said to have collected a ni hairs of Muhammad as a holy relic, believing that they would help him win his battles. He did this,   killing a woman Muhammad claimed was Histtory Uzza.
Khalid ibn al-Walid was also sent to invite the Banu Jadhimah tribe to Islam. They said ‘Saba’na, Saba’na’ we became Sabiansso Khalid took them prisoners and began executing some of them, due to past enmity, before being stopped by Abdur Rahman bin Awf. Muhammad also sent Khalid on an expedition to Dumatul Jandalto attack the Christian Prince Ukaydir who lived in a castle there.
In this campaign, Khaled took the Prince hostage and threatened to kill him until the door of the castle was opened. Muhammad then later ransomed him in exchange for camels, sheep, sets of armour, lances, and a pledge to hjstory jizyah. Khalid destroyed the statue as well as the shrine and killed those who resisted.
After the death of Muhammad, many powerful Arab tribes broke away in open revolt against the rule of Medina. Caliph Abu Bakr sent his armies to counter the rebels and apostates.
He was given the command over the strongest Muslim army and was sent towards central Arabia, the most strategically sensitive area where the most powerful rebel tribes resided. The region was closest to the Muslim stronghold of Medina and was the greatest threat to the city. Khalid first set out for the rebel tribes of Tayy and Jalidawhere Adi ibn Hatim —a prominent companion of Khakidand a chieftain of the Tayy tribe—arbitrated, and the tribes submitted to the Caliphate.
In mid-September AD, Khalid defeated Tulaiha a main rebel leader who claimed prophethood hsitory a means to draw support for himself. Tulaiha’s power was crushed after his remaining followers were defeated at the Battle of Ghamra.
The region was secured after the Battle of Zafar in October with the defeat of a tribal mistress8, Salma. Once the region around Medinathe Islamic capital, was recaptured, Khalid entered Nejda stronghold of the Banu Tamim tribes. Many of the clans hastened to visit Khalid and submit to the rule of the Caliphate.
Malik avoided direct contact with Khalid’s army and ordered his followers to scatter, and he and his family apparently moved away across the desert. Nevertheless, Malik was accused of rebelling against the state of Medina and charged for entering into an anti-Caliphate alliance with Sajjah, a self-proclaimed prophetess.
Upon hearing Malik’s response: Abu Qatada Ansari, a companion of Muhammad, who accompanied Khalid from Medina was so shocked at Malik’s murder by Khalid that he immediately returned to Medina, and told Abu Bakr that he refused to serve under a commander who had killed a Muslim.
Some officers of his army—including Abu Qatadah—believed that Khalid killed Malik to take his wife. Umar said, “Khalid’s sword is overburdening. Caliph Abu Bakr said.
I would not sheathe what Allah had unsheathed against the disbelievers. Khalid then crushed the most powerful threat to the nascent Islamic state of Medina: Musaylimaha claimant to prophethood, who had already defeated two Muslim armies. In the third week of DecemberKhalid won a decisive victory against Musaylimah at the Battle of Yamama. Musaylimah died in the battle, and nearly all resistance from rebelling tribes collapsed. With the collapse of the rebellion, and Arabia united under oc central authority of the caliph at Medina, Abu Bakr decided to expand his empire.
It is unclear what his intentions were, whether it was a full scale expansion plan or pre-emptive attacks to secure more territory to create a buffer zone between the Islamic state and the powerful Sassanid and Byzantine empires.
Khalid histofy lower Mesopotamia with this force. Submit to Islam and be safe. Or agree to the payment of the Jizya taxand you and your people irdu be under our protection, else you will have only yourself to blame for the consequences, for I bring the men who desire death as ardently as you desire life. He won quick victories in four consecutive battles: The inhabitants were given peace on the terms of annual payment of jizya tribute and agreed to provide intelligence for Muslims.
By then, nearly all of lower Mesopotamia, walred northern Euphrates region hiatory, was under Khalid’s control.