L95 Dual mandate In British tropical Africa, 3 The original of this book is in the Cornell Sir F. D. LUGARD g.c.m.g., c.b., d.s.o. HON. Lugard: The Dual Mandate 2 translated into practice admits of wide differences of opinion and method. Obviously the extent to which native races are capable of. Lugard conceded that British methods had not produced ideal results a strong guiding principle of British rule, part of its “dual mandate” of reciprocal benefit.
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Although, the Yoruba possessed a centralized political system, it was less autocratic than the Sokoto Caliphate. Although they were initially alarmed by it, the British government mandwte the proposal after subjecting it to considerable redrafting and it was eventually enacted.
Territories acquired through conquest, cession, settlement, or annexation were designated as Crown Colonies. He also saw state-sponsored colonisation as a way to protect missionaries, local chiefs and local people from each other, as well as from foreign powers. While administering Uganda, ulgard journeyed round the Rwenzori Mountains to Lake Edwardmapping a large area of the country.
Early 20th-century European poses with African Pigmies Wikimedia.
Since mandste was childless, the barony became extinct. Kalinga,The Karonga War: Archived from the original PDF on 7 December Pottinger Davis Bonham Bowring H. In practice, it proved workable largely because the existing hierarchical political order in Northern Nigeria fit perfectly with the demands of the system.
Childbirth in England She died in January ; Lugard survived her by sixteen years and died on 11 Aprilaged In Igboland, indirect rule without legitimately constituted authority was a total failure. Governors of Hong Kong.
Unlike northern and southwestern Nigeria, the provinces in the southeast did not possess the centralized political system required for indirect rule to work. The efficacy of indirect rule thus necessarily rested on the existence of powerful chiefs capable of exercising political authority lugad their jurisdictions. To help us prevent spam submissions, please type the text in the image below:.
His The Dual Mandatefirst published inbecame a handbook for all British administrators in tropical Africa, and influenced British colonial policies across the continent. Britain as a colonizing power thus had a dual mandate: Lugard ran the country whilst spending half each year in England, where he could promote himself and was distant from realities in Africa, where subordinates had to delay decisions lugrad many matters until he returned.
In local governance, they utilized an effective system of taxation and a judicial system based on Islamic law, the Sharia.
A Case Study of Uganda, c. The emirs were highly autocratic. In AugustLugard organised the West African Frontier Force and commanded it until the end of Decemberwhen the disputes with France were settled. The limitations of indirect rule were demonstrated in Southern Nigeria where Lugard extended the system after the amalgamation of northern and southern protectorates in As theorized by Lugard, the native authority retained, as much as possible, its traditional powers and character.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Lugard’s chief interest was education and he was largely remembered for his efforts to the founding of the University of Hong Kong in The White Tribe of Kenya.
He based his rule on a military system – unlike William MacGregora doctor turned governor, who mixed with all ranks of people and listened to what was wanted. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikisource. InLugard was dispatched by the Royal Niger Company to Borguwhere he secured treaties with the kings and chiefs who acknowledged the sovereignty of the British company, while reducing the influence of other colonial powers. In Northern Nigeria, therefore, Lugard found the necessary centralized political structure and pre-exiting taxation and court systems critical for indirect rule to work.
The Adubi War occurred during his governorship. Although controversial in Lagos, where it was opposed by a large section of the political class and the media, the amalgamation did not arouse passion in the rest of the country because the people were unaware of the implications.
A Mahdi rebellion in at the Satiru mandae, a village near Sokoto, resulted in the total destruction of the town and huge numbers of casualties. But the established traditional route to Machakos was a treacherous journey through the large Taru Desert—93 miles of scorching dust bowl.
The London Gazette Supplement. Apart from east and southern Africa, where the terrain and temperate weather offered convenient habitation to European settlers, the African tropics held few incentives for white settlers. Under this system, local administrative powers resided in the native authority made up of traditional rulers or chiefs with jurisdiction over a native treasury and native courts. Funding of the colony of Nigeria in the development of state’s infrastructure such as harbours, railways and hospitals in Southern Nigeria came from revenue generated by taxes on imported alcohol.
In the place of mmandate authoritarian rulers, Lugard simply manufactured his own chiefs and equipped them with political authority to rule over a people unfamiliar to a system of kingship. He became the first chancellor, despite a cold receptions from the imperial Colonial Pugard and local British companies, such as the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. However, the region provided abundant sources of raw materials and markets for manufactured goods.
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Lugard aggravated many groups in Yorubaland when he ignored tradition and arbitrarily elevated the status of some rulers. These chiefs would lose their political autonomy and become subordinated to the authority of colonial administrative agents such mancate the resident or the district officer. It was a concept in which existing African traditional political institutions were preserved and incorporated into the colonial administrative system for local governance. Their first interior trading post was established at Machakos miles in from the coast.
The Igbo, for instance, lived in fragmented societies and did not develop lkgard monarchical political institution.