MACKINDER HEARTLAND THEORY PDF

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It is battle between land power and sea power which is going to lead the world continents by one. What is Heartland theory? This theory explains,greatest wealth. This paper considers the ways in which Halford Mackinder’s ideas are represented and mobilized in geopolitical discourses in post-Soviet Russia. Mackinder is. The final tradition informing geopolitical thought in Russia today is the celebrated “Heartland” theory of the British geographer and statesman. Halford Mackinder.

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The Geographical Pivot of History – Wikipedia

During the time of the writing of the Mqckinder Theory, most of East Europe and Russia did not have an inch of road or railway network, making the belief of conquering the Heartland logistically impossible.

His map Mercator projection of hezrtland world enclosed within an ellipse exaggerated the extent of heartlannd Arctic Ocean. Halford John Mackinderthe author. Views Read Edit View history. Mackinder gave this theory in This article has multiple issues. Halford relied on the interlinking of continents to come up with theorj dichotomy whereby interlinked continents were classified in a common region.

This page was last edited on 27 Septemberat One major drawback of this theory is its inability to make allowances for the technological advances. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. China needed to first emerge as the largest economy in Asia-Europe, before it ehartland surpasses the United States as the global superpower, fulfilling what Mackinder stated: Mackinder died on March 6th,aged 86 years.

Mackinder did not consider the effect of modern technology on his theory. Also, China later went on to join the communist sphere, while the Saudi Arabia-Sahara barrier could not prevent the Cold War from spilling over into Africa. Obi, Yenisei, Lena which drain into the Arctic Sea. This theory regards political history as a continuous struggle between land and sea powers with the ultimate victory going to the continental power.

That never actually happened. The combined empire’s large East Asian coastline would also provide the potential theorg it to become a major sea power. World-Island was also the richest of the three world regions in resources. While the Heartland Theory was drafted in the early 20th century, before the world was plunged into the two World Wars and a Cold War soon after that, some scholars can link recent events of the 21st century as examples of the Heartland Theory in action.

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What is the Heartland Theory?

The vital question was how to secure control for the Heartland. This assertion was also supported by Kjellen. Mackinder had a liking for Geography and was a proponent of having physical geography and human geography taught as theogy subject.

It had rugged mountains of Lena Land in the north-east; in the east it had mackineer Altai, Tienshan mountains across which lie the wastelands of Mongolia and Sinkiang; in the south it had Hindukush ranges and the plateau of Afghanistan and Iran; in the south-west, between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea lie the Caucasus and the plateau of Armenia; in the west, the Heartland was surrounded by the Carpathian mountains; in the north-west were the Baltic Sea and the wastes of Lappland; in the north lies the Arctic Ocean.

Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Signs of Mackinder’s Heartland Theory can be found in the works of geopolitician Dimitri Kitsikisparticularly in his ” Intermediate Region ” model.

The Heartland or pivot area could have become the focus of power if either Russia had united with Germany or Russia had been overthrown by China and Japan. Please help to improve this article by introducing mqckinder precise citations.

The Heartland Theory is seen by critics as impractical in a modern perspective. Mackinder held that effective political domination of the Heartland by a single power had been unattainable in the past because:. This Heartland was perceived as the greatest natural fortress on earth surrounded on all sides by geographical barriers. According to the theory, the core of global influence lies in what is known as the Heartland, a region of the world situated in Eurasia due to its sheer size, a wealth of resources, and a high population.

According to this theory, the continental power was represented by the world island which consisted of Eurasia and Africa comprising seven- eighth of total world population and two-third of the total land area of the world. This article includes a list of referencesbut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Halford Mackinder was a 20th-century geopolitical scholar who is attributed for writing the Heartland Theory.

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What is the Heartland Theory? He divided Europe into east and west by a line joining the Adriatic to the Baltic.

The Heartland is inaccessible from sea as all the rivers either drain inland e. Mackinder believed that countries from other world regions the offshore islands and the outlying islands were hindered from making a successful invasion in the Heartland by the geographical barriers surrounding the Heartland the Carpathian Mountains to the west, the Hindukush Ranges to the South, and the Altai to the east and the Baltic Sea to the north.

Halford Mackinder was born on February 15th, in Gainsborough, England and received his education at the Epsom College and later at Christ Church in Oxford, where he received his biology degree in But throughout the nineteenth century:. The Heartland’s size and central position made it the key to controlling the World-Island.

What is the Heartland Theory? –

Although the age of aeroplanes had begun, the theory failed to take into account its potential. Mackinder identified the geopolitical nightmare that was to haunt the world’s two sea powers during the first half of the twentieth century— Great Britain and, later the United States.

This dividing line was also a zone of struggle between the Teutonic Germany and the Slavs Russia with no established balance of power. This concept is an analysis of the political pattern of the world and includes predictions based on this analysis. The other landmasses would follow later. The Heartland lay at the centre of the world island, stretching from the Volga to the Yangtze and from the Himalayas to the Arctic.

The theory was formulated at the end of the railway age.